πŸ“Mitochondrion

tags
Microbiology
plural
Mitochondria

Mitochondria is the powerhouse of the cell.

Two membranes:

  • outer membrane

    • porous
  • inner membrane

    • completely sealed (except for pumps)
    • folded β†’ large surface area (so you can have more pumps)

Proteins:

  • 99% are generated outside the mitochondrion
  • 1% by mitochondria itself
  • 13 proteins are encoded in mtDNA out of ~44 proteins needed by mitochondrion

    • how do they find one another and connect

Mitochondrial DNA (mDNA, mtDNA)

  • encodes 13 proteins
  • (usually) circular
  • usually inherited from the mother

    • egg has 200,000 mtDNA molecules
    • sperm has 5

      • those 5 are in the tail (which usually fall off) and are marked for destruction
    • but there are documented cases of inheritance from the father
    • mtDNA experiences little mutation and that’s why mtDNA is good for tracking animal lineage

Metabolism:

  • catabolic β†’ ATP synthase
  • anabolic β†’ biosynthesis (helps build molecules)
  • redox homeostasis

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